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CHAPTER 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17

Chapter 1:  CORRECTIONS: AN OVERVIEW

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Correctional Populations in the United States
Annotation: Tables present data on the growing number of persons in the United States who were under some form of correctional supervision. Begun in 1985 the tables are the latest in a series based on data from annual BJS surveys. They present jurisdiction-level counts of prisoners, probationers, and parolees, by gender, race, Hispanic origin, admission type, release type, and sentence length. Data are also provided on persons under jail jurisdiction for the Nation, as well as the 25 largest jurisdictions. Jail information includes the number of inmates by gender, race, Hispanic origin, juvenile status, and conviction status, and the total jail capacity and percent occupied at midyear.

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Justice Expenditure and Employment in the United States
Annotation:  Provides selected data from the Census Bureau's Annual General Finance and Employment Surveys. Data presented include police protection, judicial and legal services, and corrections expenditure and employment for Federal, State, and local governments in 2001 and national trend data for 1982 to 2001.



Chapter 2: PUNISHMENTS: A BRIEF HISTORY

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The Criminalization of DomesticViolence: Promises and Limits
Annotation:  What impact does the criminalization of domestic violence have on the behavior itself?

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Prison Use and Social Control
Annotation:   Allegations that incarceration undermines less coercive institutions of social control are largely speculative, according to this paper, which reviews and evaluates the existing evidence that recent increases in incarceration have had such effects.

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Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn't and What's Promising.
Annotation:  A congressionally mandated evaluation of state and local crime prevention programs funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, it summarizes the conclusions reached by the authors in developing three separate lists of programs for which at least a minimum level of scientific evidence is available: what works, what doesn't, and what's promising.



Chapter 3: SENTENCING: TO PUNISH OR TO REFORM

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Thirty Years of Sentencing Reform
Annotation:  The purpose of this essay is to inform the debate on race, crime, and justice by critically evaluating recent empirical research examining the effect of race/ethnicity on sentence severity and by searching for clues to the contexts or circumstances in which race/ethnicity makes a difference. Forty recent and methodologically sophisticated studies investigating the linkages between race/ethnicity and sentence severity are reviewed; included are 32 studies of sentencing decisions in State courts and eight studies of sentence outcomes at the Federal level.

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Reconsidering Indeterminate and Structured Sentencing
Annotation:   No single, widely shared vision of what sentencing and corrections should be about has emerged to replace indeterminate sentencing. Any effort to describe "American sentencing and corrections policies" is bound to be oversimplified and inadequate. This report describes the ideas of practitioners and scholars foremost in their field, representing a broad cross-section of points of view, concerning the purposes, functions, and interdependence of sentencing and corrections policies.

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Felony Sentences in State Courts,
Annotation:  Presents statistics for adults who were convicted of a felony and sentenced in State courts. The data were collected through a nationally representative survey of 300 counties in 2002. Within the 12 offense categories reported are the number and characteristics (age, sex, race) of offenders who were sentenced to prison, jail, or probation.



Chapter 4: DIVERSION AND PROBATION: HOW MOST OFFENDERS ARE PUNISHED

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HOPE in Hawaii: Swift and Sure Changes in Probation.
Annotation:   A pilot program launched by the Hawaii judiciary to reduce probation violations by drug offenders and others at high risk of recidivism. Probationers in HOPE receive swift, predictable and immediate sanctions.

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Pretrial Services Programs
Annotation:   This report provides a review of issues and practices in the field of pretrial services. It describes how pretrial programs operate, discusses key policy issues, and outlines issues and challenges for the future. It pays particular attention to how pretrial services programs obtain and convey information relevant to the pretrial release/detention decision. It also describes how pretrial services agencies, the court, and other criminal justice system agencies can work together to minimize the risks of nonappearance and pretrial crime.

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Stress Among Probation and Parole Officers and What Can Be Done About It
Annotation:   Researchers investigated the nature and scope of stress among probation and parole officers at nine sites around the country. They identified the major sources of stress (heavy caseloads, paperwork, deadlines) and what officers do to cope. They summarize key findings and provide case studies of promising stress reduction programs.

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Probation and Parole in the United States 2006-2007
Annotation:   Reports the number of persons on probation and parole, by State, at yearend 2007 and compares the totals with yearend 1995 and 2007. It lists the States with the largest and smallest parole and probation populations and the largest and smallest rates of community supervision, and identifies the States with the largest increases. The Bulletin also describes the race and gender of these populations and reports the percentages of parolees and probationers completing community supervision successfully, or failing because of a rule violation or a new offense.

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Trends in Probation and Parole in the States
Annotation:   This paper discusses six trends that characterize the efforts of probation and parole to meet their mandates and improve their effectiveness. Environmental factors that impact probation and parole are organizational structure, workload, resources and funding, and sentencing alternatives and reform. Trends that redefine the missions and organizational culture of parole and probation are collaboration and partnerships, results-driven management, the re-emergence of rehabilitation, specialization, technology, and community justice.


Chapter 5: INTERMEDIATE SANCTIONS: BETWEEN PROBATION AND INCARCERATION

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Drug Courts: A Review of the Evidence
Annotation:   In April 2009, the Sentencing Project published a report that analyzes the impact of the drug court movement. This report outlines the general findings on the operation and efficiency of drug courts and highlights benefits and potential concerns.

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The Future of Drug Courts
Annotation:   This paper examines the implementation of drug court in four states (Louisiana, Missouri, New York, and Ohio). Topics discussed include the early years of drug courts, leadership and mavericks, the art of selling drug courts, the role of statutes in drug court growth, laws creating alternatives to incarceration, federal support, ten key components, an operational challenge, different models, centralizing authority, building support, promoting best practices, creating infrastructure, increasing capacity, and conclusion - lessons of institutionalization.

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Correctional Boot Camps: Lessons From a Decade of Research
Annotation:  This report presents findings from 10 years of data analyzing whether boot camps are successful in reducing recidivism, prison populations, and operating costs. The report found that although boot camps generally had positive effects on the attitudes and behaviors of inmates during confinement, these changes did not translate into reduced recidivism.

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Sentencing To Service Review/Assessment Report
Annotation:   Review/Assessment Report This document discusses how Minnesota’s Sentencing to Service (STS) program has proven to be both cost-efficient and effective with long-term benefits for the state and the offenders it serves.

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What Future for "Public Safety" and "Restorative Justice" in Community Corrections?
Annotation:   Restorative justice and public safety principals are reshaping community corrections around the country. Pursuing public safety requires community corrections to take a proactive approach, to come from behind the desk into the community. This report discusses the role of restorative justice in the pursuit of public safety.



Chapter 6: JAILS: WAY STATIONS ALONG THE JUSTICE HIGHWAY

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Life After Lockup: Improving Reentry from Jail to the Community
Annotation:   This Urban Institute report explains how the nationís jails can do more to prevent recidivism by developing reentry programs that work through community service providers and agencies.

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Prevalence of Serious Mental Illness Among Jail Inmates 
Annotation:   This study estimated current prevalence rates of serious mental illness among 822 adult male and female jail inmates in Maryland and New York. The researchers found the rate of current serious mental illness for males was 14.5 percent and 31.0 percen for females. The findings have profound implications for resource allocation in the treatment of individuals with serious mental illness in jails and community-based settings.

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When Neighbors Go to Jail  
Annotation:   The impact of incarceration rates on community disorganization and family and economic life in Leon County, Florida, is examined to determine the relationship between direct and indirect exposure to the criminal justice system and attitudes toward social control. This review reports on the attitudinal differences between people who have been exposed to incarceration and those who have not and how they alter neighborhood life.

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Corrections Center of Northwest Ohio (CCNO) 
Annotation:   TThis site introduces the programming, operations, and security features of CCNO, and it includes a virtual tour of the facility.



Chapter 7: PRISONS TODAY: CHANGE STATIONS OR WAREHOUSES

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Delaware Department of Correction Life Skills Program
Annotation:  The Delaware Department of Correction has implemented an innovative 4-month Life Skills Program for prison inmates that does more than teach traditional academic and applied life skills. The program, which meets for 3 hours every weekday, has three major components: academics, violence reduction, and applied life skills. The core of Delaware's Life Skills Program is Moral Reconation Therapy (MRT), which is a systematic, step-by-step process of raising the moral reasoning level of prisoners through a series of moral and cognitive stages.

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Objective Prison Classification
Annotation:   The current state of the art in prison classification is reviewed. The document includes a brief history of objective prison classification, what is objective prison classification, effective strategies, evaluations of prison classification systems, classification of women prisoners, and other special topics and issues in classification.

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Prisons Research at the Beginning of the 21st Century
Annotation:  This analysis discusses what is known and knowable about the collateral effects of imprisonment, crime control effects of imprisonment, prisoners and prison staff, prison management, and the political economy of prisons at the Beginning of the 21st Century.

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Uneven Justice: State Rates of Incarceration by Race and Ethnicity
Annotation:   This report examines racial and ethnic dynamics of incarceration by state and highlights new information that extends the findings of previous analysis by including data on jail populations and the impact of incarceration on the Hispanic community.

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Developing Gender-Specific Classification Systems for Women Offenders
Annotation:  This report addresses the critical need for gender-specific objective classification systems. It covers the literature in classification issues for women offenders, women's classification initiatives, building blocks to effective classification of women offenders, addressing classification issues that require systemic change, and future steps. This report also has two appendixes: descriptions of seven states women's classification initiatives (Colorado, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Nebraska, West Virginia, and Wisconsin); and sample initial and reclassification instruments developed by Colorado and Idaho.



Chapter 8: PAROLE: EARLY RELEASE AND REENTRY

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Probation and Parole in the United States, 2007 Statistical Tables
Annotation: This Bureau of Justice Statistics document reports on the number of adults on parole at yearend 2007, their characteristics, those returned to incarceration, the number of sentenced prisoners admitted and released from state and federal jurisdiction and the number of adults leaving parole.

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Health and Prisoner Reentry: How Physical, Mental and Substance Abuse Conditions Shape the Process of Reintegration.
Annotation:   This Urban Institute documents reports on the influence of physical health conditions, mental illness and substance abuse on the reentry process.

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Reentry Programs for Women Inmates
Annotation:  This essay discusses the inmate rehabilitation programs that are being developed specifically for female inmates. Specifically, it presents an evaluation of two therapeutic community drug rehabilitation programs for female prisoners in Delaware: (1) The KEY program at Baylor Women's Correctional Institute and (2) CREST, a work release program at Sussex Correctional Institute.

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Reentry Partnerships: A Guide for State and Faith-Based and Community Organizations
Annotation:  This joint report by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the Council of State Governments, and the Center for Faith-Based and Community Initiatives is a practical guide for state government officials and representatives of faith-based and community organizations who want to create and sustain collaborative efforts to reduce recidivism and to help people returning home lead productive and law-abiding lives.

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Restoring the Right To Vote
Annotation:  This report from the Brennan Center for Justice at the New York University School of Law sets forth a proposal for vote restoration and proposes a model voting restoration bill.

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Gate Money: What Does Each State Give Inmates When They Leave Prison
Annotation:  American Radioworks, the national documentary unit of American Public Radio surveyed state corrections departments and asked, "What do individuals leaving prison in your state get in terms of gate money?" An interactive map lets users click on a state to learn what gate money their state provides its prisoners.



Chapter 9:  THE STAFF WORLD: MANAGING THE PRISON ENVIRONMENT

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Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities
Annotation: 
Information on facilities, inmates, programs, and staff of State and Federal correctional facilities throughout the Nation, and of private correctional facilities housing State or Federal inmates is provided.

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A 21st Century Workforce for America's Correctional Profession
Annotation:   This document is a report summarizing the Discovery Phase of the extensive project entitled 'Building a Strategic Workforce Plan for the Corrections Profession'" (p. 5). Five sections follow an executive summary: growth of the corrections system -- problems of recruiting and retaining corrections officers; the demographics of the correctional workforce in the U.S.; looking ahead at the demand side; looking ahead at the supply side; and promising human resource practices.

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Correctional Officer Recruits and the Prison Environment.
Annotation:  The report examines the adaptation of a newly hired corrections officer to the prison environment. The report focuses upon the following demographic profile information: attitudes towards correctional work, attitude towards inmates support for rehabilitation, deterrence, human service orientation, and other qualities and factors.

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Duress Systems in Corrections Facilities
Annotation:   In order to respond effectively to assaults on personnel and other emergencies, corrections facilities must be able to pinpoint the location and nature of the problem within seconds of its occurrence. A duress system—typically composed of a closed network of portable and mounted transmitters and receivers linked by ultrasonic, infrared, or radio frequency waves to a command center alarm console—permits the rapid and coordinated response that can save lives and reduce institutional damage. This Guide provides detailed information on nine commercially available systems, covering the alarm, locator, and control subsystems; hardware/software used; and additional features.



Chapter 10: THE INMATE WORLD: LIVING BEHIND BARS

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Prisons Research at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century
Annotation:  Research on the collateral effects of imprisonment suggests that policy makers have been flying blind, making decisions costing billions of dollars and affecting millions of lives without adequate knowledge of the nature and costs of some unintended side effects, according to this report. The writer advocates a more reasoned and empirical approach to criminal justice sentencing policy.

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Sexual Violence Reported by Correctional Authorities
Annotation:   Presents data from the Survey on Sexual Violence, 2004, an administrative records collection of incidents of inmate-on-inmate and staff-on-inmate sexual violence reported to correctional authorities. The report provides counts of sexual violence by type and includes tables on reporting capabilities, how investigations are handled, and characteristics of victims and perpetrators of sexual violence.

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Caught in the Net: the Impact of Drug Policies on Women & Families
Annotation:  The rate of imprisonment of women for drug crimes has far outpaced that of men. Families and children suffer – but why? Either we have turned a blind eye or we simply misunderstand women’s experiences with drugs. Jointly published by The ACLU, Break the Chains: Communities of Color and the War on Drugs, and the Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law, this report begins a new dialogue and insists on answers to questions about women and drugs, and the laws and policies that should be in place.

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Gender-Responsive Strategies Research, Practice, and Guiding Principles for Women Offenders
Annotation:   The purpose of the document is to identify critical differences between men and women inmates and to define their implications for improving correctional management and services for women offenders.



Chapter 11: THE LEGAL WORLD: PRISONERS' RIGHTS

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Pell v. Procunier, 471 U.S. 817 (1974)
Annotation:  In this case the Court ruled that "So long as [a] restriction operates in a neutral fashion, without regard to the content of the expression, it falls within the 'appropriate rules and regulations' to which 'prisoners necessarily are subject,' and does not abridge any First Amendment freedoms retained by prison inmates."

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Cruz v. Beto, 405 U.S. 319 (1972)
Annotation:   The Court held that a complaint that challenged restrictions on an inmate's practice of Buddhism stated a claim upon which relief could be granted, ruling that "reasonable opportunities must be afforded to all prisoners to exercise the religious freedom guaranteed by the First and Fourteenth Amendments without fear of penalty.

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Estelle v. Gamble, 429 U.S. 97 (1976)
Annotation:  The Court held that deliberate indifference to serious medical needs is prohibited whether the indifference is manifested by prison doctors in their response to the prisoner's needs or by prison guards in intentionally denying or delaying access to medical care or intentionally interfering with the treatment once prescribed.

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Wolff v. McDonnell, 418 U.S. 539 (1974)
Annotation:   The Court expanded due process standards to govern the imposition of discipline upon prisoners. But since prison disciplinary proceedings are not part of a criminal prosecution the full rights of a defendant are not extended to prisoners.

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Wilson v. Seiter, 501 U.S. 294 (1991)
Annotation:   The Court held that any pain and suffering endured by a prisoner which is not formally a part of his sentence--no matter how severe or unnecessary--will not be held violative of the Cruel and Unusual Punishments Clause unless the prisoner establishes that some prison official intended the harm.



CHAPTER 12: SPECIAL PRISON POPULATIONS: THE ELDERLY, HIV/AIDS, AND THE MENTALLY CHALLENGED

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Mental Health Problems of Prison and Jail Inmates
Annotation:   This report resents estimates of the prevalence of mental health problems among prison and jail inmates using self-reported data on recent history and symptoms of mental disorders, and compares the characteristics of offenders with a mental health problem to those without

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Crossing the Bridge: An Evaluation of the Drug Treatment Alternative-to-Prison (DTAP) Program
Annotation:   This report analyzes results from a five-year evaluation of Brooklyn's Drug Treatment Alternative-to-Prison (DTAP).

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Dignity Denied: The Price of Imprisoning Older Women in California
Annotation:  This reports examines the conditions of confinement for older women imprisoned in California, documents their health and safety concerns and discusses strategies to improve their health and well-being. The findings are based on data derived from 120 surveys of women prisoners aged 55 and older as well as a series of semi-structured interviews with older women prisoners, their families and friends. The findings address activities of daily life, housing, work and programming, health care, abuse and social support for older prisoners. The last three chapters examine current efforts nationally to respond to the crisis generated by the graying of the prison population, explore the questions surrounding the development of geriatric prisons, and make recommendations for ways California policymakers might address the issues.

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Correctional Health Care: Addressing the Needs of Elderly, Chronically Ill, and Terminally Ill Inmates
Annotation:  This report reviews recent literature, describes promising approaches taken by systems in six states and discusses “how agencies are meeting related operational, programmatic, and health care delivery challenges.”

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Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses: The Essential Elements of a Mental Health Court
Annotation:  This publication identified ten essential elements of mental health court design and implementation. Each element contains a short statement describing criterion that mental health courts should meet, followed by a discussion of why the element is important and how courts can adhere to it.



Chapter 13: PRISON ISSUES AND CONCERNS: SECURITY, PRIVATIZATION, TECHNOLOGY AND ACCREDIDATION

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Biometrics Catalog Online
Annotation:  The Biometrics Catalog is a U.S. Government sponsored database of information about biometric technologies including research and evaluation reports, government documents, legislative text, news articles, conference presentations, and vendors/consultants.

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Supermax Prisons and the Constitution.
Annotation:   This monograph discusses the liability issues in operating supermax prisons. It covers the background of supermax prisons and related litigation, and it takes a close look at case law, prison policies and practices, and "lessons learned" in operational areas that give rise to litigation.

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Strategies to Prevent Prison Rape by Changing the Correctional Culture
Annotation:  This report presents promising initiatives and practices in eleven states for addressing the problem of sexual violence in prison, especially changing the correctional culture.

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Resolution of Prison Riots
Annotation:   This research discusses how eight State and Federal prisons have dealt with riots and what strategies and procedures are effective during the stages of a prison riot. Safety of prison employees, inmates, and residents of the area in which the facility is located, plus the financial cost of prison riots makes their prevention and containment a critical issue. Factors that must be addressed include such criminal justice issues as how prisons are administered (and how command is divided during riots), race relations in prisons, how prisons are built and renovated, how prisons are staffed, and how staff are utilized and augmented during riots. On the basis of an in-depth examination of eight disturbances, the study concludes that proactive planning and preparation along with reactive problem solving is the most effective approach to prison riot resolution



Chapter 14: THE VICTIM: HELPING THOSE IN NEED

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The Rights of Crime Victims: Does Legal Protection Make a Difference?
Annotation:  This survey of more than 1,300 crime victims, the largest of its kind, was conducted by the National Center for Victims of Crime to find out whether State constitutional amendments and other legal measures designed to protect crime victims’ rights have been effective.

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Repairing the Harm: A New Vision for Victim Compensation in America
Annotation:   Financial compensation for victims is a critical ingredient in repairing the harm caused by crime. After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the nation responded immediately with a remarkable level of private and government support for the thousands of victims left behind. Repairing the Harm reflects on our approach to compensating the September 11 victims and explores how best to provide financial assistance to all crime victims.

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Analyzing Repeat Victimization
Annotation:  This report helps police identify and understand patterns of repeat victimization for a range of crime and disorder problems. It describes the concept of repeat victimization and its relationship to other patterns in public safety problems, such as hot spots and repeat offenders



Chapter 15: DEATH: THE ULTIMATE SANCTION

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Convicted by Juries, Exonerated by Science
Annotation:  This research report discusses a study, initiated in June 1995, to identify and review cases in which convicted persons were released from prison as a result of posttrial DNA testing of evidence.

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The Future of Forensic DNA Testing
Annotation:   The National Commission on the Future of DNA Evidence was created by U.S. Attorney General. This report identifies the technical advances through 2010 and assesses the expected impact of these on forensic DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) analysis.

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What do Advocates of the Death Penalty say about Innocence?
Annotation:  Annotation: Read the issue of "Innocence" at the Website of prodeathpenalty.com. What do you conclude?

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Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 (1972)
Annotation:  In its decision in Furman v. Georgia in 1972, the United States Supreme Court invalidated all then-existing death penalty laws, determining that the death penalty was applied in an "arbitrary and capricious" and unreliable manner that violated Eighth Amendment protections against cruel and unusual punishment. In 1976 the high court ruled in Gregg v. Georgia that, on its face, Georgia's new "guided discretion" capital-sentencing procedures appeared to have reduced the problem of arbitrary, capricious, and unreliable death verdicts that had led the Court to invalidate prior capital statutes in Furman v. Georgia.



Chapter 16: JUVENILE CORRECTIONS

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A Century of Juvenile Justice
Annotation:  This document examines multiple forces that have substantially impacted the juvenile justice endeavor during the 20th century. An examination of shifts in policy and practice over time provides a valuable foundation for envisioning justice for youths in the new century. First, it describes the development of the juvenile justice system, underscoring major eras in its evolution. It then examines trends in four broad areas that have shaped the juvenile justice system: (1) social constructions of childhood and delinquency; (2) the role of criminological theory and measurement; (3) juvenile crime patterns as represented primarily in official reports; and (4) general social, economic, and cultural trends, including patterns of change in the larger criminal justice system. Finally, there is an examination of the possibilities for at least ameliorating some of the seemingly intractable dilemmas of justice for youths.

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Into The Abyss: A Personal Journey into the World of Street Gangs
Annotation:   Read this Web-based groundbreaking work on the youth gang subculture and access more than 2,300 links to useful gang-related information.

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Dismantling the Border Between Juvenile and Adult Justice
Annotation:  This chapter reviews the origins of juvenile justice in the United States, summarizes the legislative and policy changes that are effectively dismantling the juvenile-criminal border, and examines research on the impact of such policies. The discussion concludes with a review of issues that should be prominent in any debate about the future viability of the juvenile-criminal boundary.



Chapter 17: PROFESSIONALISM

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New Approaches to Staff Safety
Annotation:  Staff safety training issues for community corrections agencies are discussed including use-of-force continuum, crisis prevention, self defense and physical fitness, oleoresin capsicum, body protection, safety in the office, protection from disasters, arrest, search, and seizure, field work, canine considerations, scenario training, and critical incidents.

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Correctional Officers Professional Orientation Scales
Annotation:   A review of tools utilized in assessing correctional officer attitudes is presented. Scales considered are organized into three groups: offender related scales, orientation to correctional work scales, and attitudes towards corrections scales. Each entry includes a brief description of the scale, corresponding items, and psychometric properties to be derived from scale use.

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Who Will Control the Jails Beyond 2000?
Annotation:  A discussion how to succeed at jail management. Topics include how to know when there's a problem, direct supervision, mission and philosophy, and correctional leadership.

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Correctional Leadership Competencies for the 21st Century
Annotation:  Characteristics that result in the best performance of executive and senior level leaders are identified along with the key skills, knowledge, and attributes of effective and successful leaders which are then linked to a set of specific behaviors.

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Survey Summary: Correctional Officers Hiring Requirements and Wages
Annotation:  The American Correctional Association compared the results of a survey of correctional officers' hiring requirements and wages with a similar survey conducted in 2004 and concludes that little has changed.

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Ten Steps Corrections Directors Can Take to Strengthen Performance
Annotation: 
A 2008 publication of the Pew Center discusses how leading states are redefining the missions of their correctional systems and using performance information to make smarter policy, budget, human resource and facilities decisions.



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Last Modified on January 7, 2010 Fifth Edition

Copyright 2010 by Frank Schmalleger, Ph.D. and John O. Smylka
All Rights Reserved.